Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin White Paper: A 12-Year Old ...

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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List of bitcoin person-to-person (P2P) bitcoin exchanges (e.g., Bisq, HodlHodl, LocalCoinSwap, etc.)

Following is a list of P2P exchanges for trading Bitcoin. Common payment methods include bank transfer, cash deposited in the seller's bank account, in-person cash (face-to-face) trades as well as payment networks such as Zelle, Alipay, even Cash App and PayPal, for example.
Any that I am missing?
Altcoin-only P2P Trading exchanges
AggregatoSearch and Helper Sites
Note: If you use one of the above P2P OTC trade "matchmaking" services, please trade with caution and do your own due diligence.
This list does not include exchanges not in English (e.g., 58Coin), deserted or defunct marketplaces (e.g., Cancoin, and Rahakott), not-yet launched (e.g., OTCBoss), ones that operate only through dark markets, or online-only DEX/decentralized exchanges (another list of DEXes).
Also, there are a number of variants that I didn't list:
Otherwise, there are a number of other exchanges — with varying attributes. We recommended trying to stick with No-KYC exchanges, including most of the ones listed on:
Additions, corrections, and other feedback welcome and can be submitted as an issue or pull request on GitHub, or via e-mail.
[Note: There is also a corresponding post on Medium with this information as well.]
submitted by cointastical to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Round up of Cryptocurrency News #3 Week 20/07 - 26/07

Pssst! Hey you. Scroll down for commentary!
Important/Notable/Highlights:
Special Mentions:
You haven't had enough news? Here is some more:
Speculation:
You made it! :)
First up, SORRY! This has been a late post, I have my reasons don't question them (if you must know I'll be posting in the discord - one time only haha). Secondly, I am sure you can agree with me when I say "Wow!" What an incredible week it has been. Last week I thought it was going to take a couple more weeks for more moving price action when it had only taken a few days which has seen Bitcoin reach and pass the $10,000 region. We have also seen the total Market cap for cryptocurrencies increase from about 280B to over 300B (308B at time of writing) within just a few days. A huge injection of liquidity, about 40B, into the market and just to name a few of the best rises in the top 20 (on Coinmarketcap.com), the price of ETH BTC ADA have given good performances/positive responses (With this I will start adding screenshots at the end of each week for timestamp purposes).
This may be a combination from Binance, Mastercard, Paypal, Grayscale investments, VISA AND the DEFI sector. Let me explain... Last week we read about Binance integrating with the company Swipe (SXP) to issue there own debit card expanding the use and reach of cryptocurrency to 31 countries within Europe. Binance's Q2 scheduled token burn of $60.5 Million, this figure correlates with its exchange, margin and futures trading platforms where approximately 20% of profits get burned to increase the price of BNB token (careful as the price has been steady after the burn).
This week we find out Mastercard's expansion into the Cryptosphere as they expand and integrate with the Wirex team to issue a Mastercard-backed Bitcoin debit card, thus further extending the reach of cryptocurrency availability internationally.
"The cryptocurrency market continues to mature and Mastercard is driving it forward, creating safe and secure experiences for consumers and businesses in today’s digital economy " "...Our work with Wirex and the wider crypto ecosystem is accelerating innovation and empowering consumers with more choice in the way they pay"
Mastercard is also reaching out to other emerging cryptocurrency firms to apply to become principal members [Partners] with Mastercard as they have relaxed their digital assets program and look to expand into the Digital Assets and Blockchain environment.
Paypals expression of interest in cryptocurrency facilitiation may bear fruits as it is said Paypal has partnered up with stablecoin operator Paxos (who is already in partnership with Revolut in the US) to facilitate trading through a cryptocurrency brokerage which will enable other firms to integrate cryptocurrency trading functionalities with them. In my opinion this looks much more promising than the Libra association they pulled out from last October as regulations.
Grayscale Investments clears regulatory hurdle as they have been given the green light for its Bitcoin Cash Trust (BCHG) and Litecoin Trust (LTCN) to be quoted in over-the-counter (OTC) markets by US Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).
“The Trusts are open-ended trusts sponsored by Grayscale and are intended to enable exposure to the price movement of the Trusts’ underlying assets through a traditional investment vehicle, avoiding the challenges of buying, storing, and safekeeping digital Bitcoin Cash or Litecoin directly.”
More green lights for Cryptocurrency in the US as regulators allow banks to provide cryptocurrency custody services (which may go further than just custody services). A little bit strange as it seems unnecessary and undermines one of the key factors and uses of cryptocurrency which is to be in complete control of your own finances... On another outlook this may be bullish as it allows US banks to provide banking services directly to lawful cryptocurrency businesses and show support for Bitcoin.
Visa shows support stating they have a roadmap for their further expansion into the Crypto sphere. Already working with Crypto platform Coinbase and Fold they have stated they recognise the role of digital assets in the future of money. To be frank, it appears to be focused on stable coins, cost effectiveness and transaction speeds. However they are expanding their support for crypto assets.
AND MOST IMPORTANTLY, DeFI! Our very own growing section in crypto. Just like the 2017 ICO boom we are seeing exorbitant growth and FOMO into the Decentralised Finance sector (WBTC, Stablecoins, Yield farming, DEXs etc). The amount of active addresses on Ethereum has doubled but with the FOMO on their network have sky rocketed their fees! Large use-cases of stable coins such as USDT ($6B in circulation using ERC-20 standard), DAI, TUSD, and PAX. $114M Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) on their network acts as a fluid side chain for Bitcoin and DEX trade volume has touched $1.6B this month. With all this action happening on Ethereum I saw the 24HR volume surpass BTC briefly on Worldcoinindex.com
In other news, Bitcoin has been set as a new precedent in a US federal court in a case against Larry Dean Harmon, the operator of an underground trading platform Helix. Bitcoin has now legally been ruled as a form of money.
“After examination of the relevant statutes, case law, and other sources, the Court concludes that bitcoin is money under the MTA and that Helix, as described in the indictment, was an `unlicensed money transmitting business´ under applicable federal law.”
Quick news in China/Asia as floods threaten miners and the most dominant ASIC Bitcoin mining rig manufacturer Bitmain loses 10,000 Antminers worth millions alledgedly goes missing or "illegally transfered" with ongoing leadership dispute between cofounders.
Last but not least, Cardano (ADA) upgrade Shelley is ready to launch! Hardfork is initiated as final countdown clock is switched on. At time of writing the point of no return has been reached, stress tests done and confirmation Hardfork is coming 29/07 The Shelley Mainnet upgrade is a step toward fast, capable and decentralised crypto that can serve billions of people. With the Shelley Mainnet is ADA staking rewards and pools! Here is a chance for us Gravychainers to set up a small pool of our own. Small percentage of profits going into the development of the community, and you keep the rest!
If you read all of my ramblings thanks heaps! I appreciate it! I have added an extra piece of reading called speculation. Most you can speculate on by just reading the headline some others have more depth to them.
Another post next week for a weekly round up! Where do you think the market is going? What is in your portfolio? Let us know in the Gravychain Discord Channel
See you soon!
🍕 Bring some virtual pizza to share 🍕
Come have a chat, stimulate a discussion, ask a question or share some knowledge. We are all friendly crypto enthusiasts up for a chat, supportive and want to help each other with knowledge and investments!
Big thanks to our Telegram and My Crypto HQ for the constant news updates!
P.S.
Dr Seuss collectables on the blockchain HECK YEAH! and Bitcoin enters NASCAR, remember when Doge did this? it was like when Doge was trending on TikTok.
... Oh yeah did I also mention Steve Wozniak is suing Youtube, Google over rampant Bitcoin scams. Wait, what? Sydney based law firm JPB Liberty is suing Google, Facebook and Twitter for up to $300B. Just another day in the Cryptosphere.
submitted by IOTAbesomewhere to Gravychain [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

cb

https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/1confirmation
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/238-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/3.0-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/300e
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/360-blockchain
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/3iq
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/3iq-global-crypto-asset-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/8decimal-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/a16z
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/aberdeen-standard-investments
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/accomplice
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ai-coin
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/algo-depth-lp
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/algo-land
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alice-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/all-in-one-coin
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alluminate-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alphabit-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alphablock
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alphablock-investments
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alphachain
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alphacoin-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alphaledger
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alt-coin-advisors
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/altana-digital-currency-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/alternative-money-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ame-cloud-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/amentum
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/amino
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/amplify-etfs
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/apex-token-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/arbidex
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/arch-3
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/astronaut-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/auryn-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ausum-blockchain-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/authorito-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/autonomous-partners
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/avg
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/avg-blockchain
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/axionv
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/base58
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bessemer
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bessemer-venture-partners
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/beth
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/binance
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/binary-crypto-fund-ii
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitbull-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitcoin-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitcoin-suisse
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitfin
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitmain
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitspread
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitwise
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bitwise-hold-10-private-index-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blackmoon
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blackmoon-crypto
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bletchley-park-asset-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/block-asset
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/block-asset-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/block-bits-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/block-venture-project
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blockchain-assets-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blockchain-index
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blockchain-momentum-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blockstack
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blocktower
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blocktown-holdings,-lp
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blockweather
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blueyard
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/blume-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bochsler
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/boldstart-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/boost-vc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/brian-kelly-capital-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/brooklyn-bridge-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bullcoin-gold
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/bullpen-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/calibrate-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cambrian-asset-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cdh
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/chainlink-crypto-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cmt
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coin-capital-llc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coin-metrics
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coinbase
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coinbase-index-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coincheck-investment-program
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coincube
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coinfund-llc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coinshares-1-lp
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coinsilium
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/colorado-blockchain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/comcast-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/confirmation-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/consensys
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/core-innovation-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cosimo-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/coventure
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crescent-crypto
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-asset-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-assets-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-bazar
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-currency-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-currency-fund-l.p.
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-fund-ag
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-futura-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-improvement-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-lotus
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-oracle
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto20
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cryptoai
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/crypto-alpha
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cryptochain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cryptocurrency-large-cap-balanced-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cryptocurrency.market
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cryptofondo
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cryptosky
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cv-crypto-alpha-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cyber-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/cyber-capital-fund-a
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/datarobot
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/dekrypt-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/delphi-digital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/digicor90
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/digicorew
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/digital-asset-fund-inc.
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/digital-asset-strategies
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/digital-developers-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/digitalx
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/distributed-alpha
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/draper-dragon
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/draper-esprit
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/drw-venture-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/d'souza-roppel-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/dti
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ecoin.fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/element-capital-group
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/elpis-investments
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/emurgo
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/endeavor-asset-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/equi-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ether-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/etherical-alpha
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/evercoin
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/exagon-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/exante
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fabric-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fbg-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fenbushi
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/finch-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/finshi-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/first-bitcoin-capital-corp
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/first-block-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/firstchain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/firstmark-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fisco
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/flint-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/flipside-crypto
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/flipside-crypto-(-member)
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/focus-investments
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/founders-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fractal-investments
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/full-node-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/full-tilt-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fund-3
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/fund3
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/funders-club
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/future-perfect-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/future-perfect-ventures-(team)
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/g2h2
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/galaxy-ip
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/general-catalyst
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/general-crypto
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/granite-bedrock-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/grasshopper-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/greenhouse-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hackmind
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/halo-vc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hard-yaka
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hashed
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hazoor
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hedge-coin-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hehmeyer
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hehmeyer-cryptocurrency-index-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/hyperchain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/iconiq-lab
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ikigai-asset-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/innovation-endeavours
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/intellectual-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/intrepid-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/investx
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/iterative-instinct-fund-i
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ivp
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/june-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/kenetic-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/kenetic-capital---crypto-alpha
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/khosla-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/korelya-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/kosmos-digital-asset-alpha
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/kryptonite1
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ldgr-capital-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ldj-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/libertus-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/liberty-city-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/life.sreda-bb-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/life.sreda-vc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/lightspeed-venture-partners
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/logos-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/lun-partners-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/luna-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/lunar
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/lunar-digital-assets
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/lux-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/macroscape
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/magnet-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/medici-crypto
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/microsoft
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/miller-value-partners
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/mirach-capital-group
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/monmouth-point-cryptocurrency-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/morgan-creek
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/morgan-creek-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/mosaic-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/mt-digital-assets
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/multicoin-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/mutual-coin
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/mybit
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/napoleon-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/neufund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/neural-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/next-generation
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/novena-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/numus
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/odyssey-coin-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/outlier-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/palmy-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/pandora-boxchain
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/pantera
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/pantera-digital-asset-fund-lp
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/passport-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/pentacore
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/placeholder-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/plympton-crypto-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/point-nine-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/pollinate
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/pollinate-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/polychain
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/polychain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/prasos-oy
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/prime-factor-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/quadarch-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/reality-shares
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/rex-short-bitcoin-strategy-etf
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/ribbit-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/rivemont-crypto-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/salt-blockchain-asset-partners
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/satoshi-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sbi
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/scalar-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/scale-up-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/science-inc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sequoia-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/serrada
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sharpe-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/shuttle-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/silver-8-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/singulariteam
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/smart-investment-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/solidx-partners-inc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/soros
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sosv
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sparkchain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sparklabs
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/spice
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/spice-vc
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/spice-venture-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/starchain-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/starta-accelerator
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/starta-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/superbloom-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/suregroup
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/sv-angel
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/svk-crypto
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/systematic-alpha
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/taas
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/target-coin
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/techstars
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/tetras-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/tezos
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/tezos-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/the-crypto-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/the-stable-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/the-token-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/tig
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/tmt-crypto-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/tokenai.io
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/trammell-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/trevi-digital-assets-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/true-global-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/typhon-capital-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/union-square-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/valor-equity-partners
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/venture-garden-group
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/version-one-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/virgil-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/vito-ventures
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/vulpes-investment-management
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/wave-financial
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/winklevoss-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/wyre-capital
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/xiong-an-global-blockchain-innovation-fund
https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/zcash-investment-trust
submitted by Quippykisset to peaceCorpsCoding [link] [comments]

Что такое кастодиальные и некастодиальные криптокошельки?

Что такое кастодиальные и некастодиальные криптокошельки?
Можно ли обойтись одним криптокошельком?
Сохранить свои криптоактивы в целости и сохранности важно не меньше, чем выгодно приобрести их или заработать. По мере развития технологий и интереса к криптосфере все больше злоумышленников начинают охоту на монеты пользователей, а криптокошельки становятся одними из их излюбленных целей.
Начинающих криптоинвесторов зачастую вводит в заблуждение название этого инструмента: пользователи могут полагать, что их средства по умолчанию находятся в безопасности в любом криптокошельке, и предпочитают хранить монеты прямо на криптобирже. Но это небезопасно.
Если вам есть что терять, разделите монеты на те, которые понадобятся для быстрого проведения операций — их можно оставить в кастодиальных криптокошельках, и те, которые собираетесь хранить — их лучше сберегать в некастодиальных криптокошельках.
https://preview.redd.it/6sttmho3w6y31.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a443da04d480786868b0d9985b8db80b6d00ed3b
Что такое кастодиальный криптокошелек?
Кастодиальные кошельки напоминают банковские инструменты. Их отличительное свойство — отсутствие у пользователя полного контроля над своими средствами, поскольку у оператора (кастодиана) есть доступ к приватному ключу. В этом есть свои плюсы. Например, утратив пароли или ключи, пользователь сможет снова получить доступ к средствам.
Кастодиальные кошельки есть у многих криптобирж (Coinbase, Kraken, Bitfinex, Binance, Poloniex, Bittrex, Coinex, Bitstamp и т. д.), торговых платформ и брокерских сервисов. Подобная интеграция упрощает работу с другими инструментами этих площадок, бывает выгодна при совершении транзакций (например, за счет отсутствия комиссий внутри экосистемы) и эффективна, если помнить, что фактически контроль за средствами принадлежит третьей стороне. К этой категории также относятся такие популярные криптокошельки, как Freewallet, Xapo, Crypto.com и др.

В чем недостатки кастодиальных криптокошельков?
Среди основных недостатков кастодиальных криптокошельков — доступ кастодиана к пользовательским средствам и риски их утраты в результате взлома, форка, по решению властей или суда. Неприятным опытом может оказаться и отсутствие доступа к собственным средствам во время проведения технических работ.
Например, летом 2016 года хакеры вывели почти 120 тысяч биткоинов с криптокошельков пользователей криптобиржи Bitfinex, которая хранила средства на горячем кошельке. Краже средств не помешали ни двухфакторная аутентификация, ни мультиподпись.
Ярким примером недостатков кастодиальных кошельков стало закрытие российской криптобиржи BTC-e. Летом 2017 года ФБР арестовало ее серверы и расположенные в США активы. Позже площадка перезапустилась под новым названием WEX и снова остановила работу, ее клиенты потеряли доступ к средствам.
Что такое некастодиальный криптокошелек?
Некастодиальным можно считать криптовалютный кошелек, сохраняющий за пользователем возможность полностью контролировать ключи и свои средства. К данной категории можно отнести аппаратные, мобильные, бумажные, десктоп- и веб-кошельки.
Самые популярные некастодиальные кошельки — это Abra, MyEtherWallet, Electrum, MyCrypto, BitGo, Wirex, Button Wallet, Exodus, ZenGo, Paytomat, Bitcoin.com, BRD, Blockchain, BTC.com, Electron Cash, Copay, Jaxx, Coinomi, Atomic Wallet, Guarda, Wasabi Wallet, Edge.
Некастодиальные криптокошельки абсолютно безопасны?
Нет. Некастодиальные криптокошельки имеют свои недостатки. Например, если потерять приватный ключ и фразу для его восстановления, средства будут безвозвратно утеряны (поэтому стоит быть особо осторожными с brainwallet, то есть с хранением данных в собственной памяти, или в бумажном криптокошельке — на бумаге). Вспомните историю о британском майнере, который в середине 2013 года по ошибке выкинул на свалку жесткий диск с добытыми за 4 года 7500 биткоинами.
Кроме того, некастодиальные криптокошельки интересуют и злоумышленников. Так, весной 2018 года популярный некастодиальный Ethereum-кошелек MyEtherWallet потерял 216 эфиров клиентов из-за атаки на DNS-сервер: хакеры перенаправили пользователей на фишинговый сайт и получили доступ к их приватным ключам.
Одними из самых эффективных и безопасных считаются аппаратные криптокошельки (Ledger, TREZOR, BitFreezer, Jaxx Liberty, KeepKey, Cool Wallet, Digital Box), хотя и они могут иметь уязвимости в коде, подвергаться физическому взлому или потеряться.
Как нужно работать с криптокошельком?
  • Сохраняйте ключи с помощью менеджеров паролей (LastPass, 1Password), а пароли к некастодиальным кошелькам — разными способами в нескольких надежных местах.
  • Для защиты от фишинга в веб-кошельки заходите по ссылкам, сохраненным вами в закладках. Если вводите адреса вручную, лучше делать это в новой вкладке браузера и с внимательной перепроверкой всех знаков.
  • Определите для решения каких задач вам нужны криптоактивы — и для минимизации рисков разделите их на несколько предварительно самостоятельно изученных криптокошельков.
submitted by PiterDaf to u/PiterDaf [link] [comments]

The most influential women in crypto

On International Women's Day, we’d like to give recognition to the incredible women who have made undeniable contributions to the crypto industry, crypto mass adoption, promotion, and development.
Laura Shin - the chief editor for cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies at Forbes, one of the founders of Forbes Fintech 50. She is also a host of Unchained, a podcast about cryptocurrencies and blockchain.
Nina Nichols - the founder and president of Global Women in Blockchain.
Elizabeth Stark - the co-founder and CEO of Lightning Labs, the company whose main product, Bitcoin Lightning Network, helps crypto users to use payment channels with skyrocketing speed and low fees.
Galia Benartzi - the co-founder of a cryptocurrency exchange Bancor which allows users to exchange crypto without any mediators, on the basis of smart contracts.
Rachel Wolfson - the cryptocurrency and blockchain journalist. Also, she is a host of the well-known “BadCrypto” podcast. She has been motivating lots of women to become a part of the crypto and blockchain sphere.
Tiffany Hayden - the crypto influencer with 76k followers on Twitter, huge XRP (and crypto in general) fan and supporter. Also, she helps professionals and organizations in the finance industry understand blockchain technology in an easy and comprehensive way.
Jennifer Greyson - CEO of AI Blockchain, which uses AI to make financial forecasts using blockchain technology.
Connie Gallippi - the founder of BitGive, a Bitcoin charity organization that empowers donors and organizations to make a positive social impact by bitcoin donations. BitGive is a partner of many charity organizations such as The Water Project, Save the Children, Medic Mobile, and many others.
Joyce Kim - the executive director of Stellar Lumens, one of those cryptocurrencies that are popular to use both within blockchain-focused communities and traditional businesses. Stellar provides the advanced speed of transactions, is customizable and highly accessible. Kim also works as a lawyer for immigrants as well as domestic abuse survivors.
Jinglan Wang - the executive director of the Blockchain Educational Network that helps students all over the world to create and develop their blockchain communities.
Jill Ni - Head of Binance Charity, Binance Charity is a non-profit blockchain-based organization that helps solve social and ecological problems using blockchain technology thus making donating more transparent, secure. Recently, the company has made significant donations to combat coronavirus in China.
Maggie Xu - CEO of Jaxx Liberty, a cryptocurrency platform that empowers people to take control of their digital lives by managing digital assets, including stable coins. All Jaxx products (wallet, in-app exchange, portfolio, markets, news and block explorers) are non-custodial, always free and offer 7-day support to its global user community.
Despite the fact that the number of women in crypto and fintech industries is still lower than that of men, more and more of them are getting involved in the industry and start playing significant roles in blockchain space from one year to another. This tendency wouldn’t come true if there weren’t women who inspire and be role models for other women. We hope that this trend will continue and, in the next decade, we’ll see more women in crypto!
submitted by changelly_com to Changelly [link] [comments]

I'm trying to put together a list of what's coming out this year. Have this very simple list so far. Anyone care to add anything or suggest some better dates?

Latest News (most recent first) - Instant channels enable safe Lightning payments with unconfirmed funding Beta - Feb 10, 2019 - Voyager, New trading app from Uber & E-Trade execs announce launch date - Feb 9, 2019 - bumi/blockstream_satellite ruby gem for the Blockstream Satellite API - Feb 8, 2019 - New Zap Desktop 0.3.4 is out. New features, massive performance - Feb 8, 2019 - New release: @lightning desktop app v0.4.0-alpha - Feb 8, 2019 - valerio-vaccaro/Liquid-dashboard - Feb 7, 2019 - Japanese SBI Holdings will allow trading of coins - March 2019 - lnd v0.5.2-beta released - Feb 6, 2019 - Koala studios launches online LN gaming platform - Feb 6, 2019 - Independent Reserve has become the first #crypto exchange in Australia to be insured, with coverage underwritten by Lloyd's of London. - Feb 6, 2019 - Coinbase announces BTC support for their mobile (keep your own keys) wallet - Feb 6, 2019 - Blockstream published a new open source Proof of Reserves tool. - Feb 5, 2019 - RTL release v0.1.14-alpha - Feb 5, 2019 - dr-orlovsky/typhon-spec spec for new trestles side chain published - Feb 5, 2019 - Payment requests coming soon to BTCPay. - Feb 5th, 2019 - Kraken Acquires Futures Startup In Deal Worth At Least $100 Million - Feb 5th, 2019 - Next Blockchain cruise scheduled for June 9-13 - Feb 4, 2019 - Work on a GoTenna plugin to Electrum wallet in progress - Feb 4, 2019 - Bitcoin Candy Dispensers being open sourced - Feb 4, 2019 - New release of JoinMarket v0.5.3 - Feb 4, 2019 - Prime Trust won’t charge its clients to custody digital assets any longer. - Feb 4, 2019 - nodogsplash/nodogsplash wifi access using LN - Feb 3, 2019 - @tippin_me Receive tips using Lightning Network adds message feature - Feb 3, 2019 - Bitcoin-for-Taxes Bill in NH Unanimously Approved by House Subcommittee - Feb 3, 2019 - Full support for native segwit merged into bitcoinj - Feb 3, 2019 - Bitfury is partnering with financial services firm Final Frontier! - Feb 2, 2019 - Now you can open #LightningNetwork channels in @LightningJoule - Feb 2, 2019 - Integrating Blockstream’s Liquid payments on SideShift AI - Feb 1, 2019 - Wyoming legislature passes bill to recognize cryptocurrency as money - Feb 1, 2019 - Casa is open sourcing the code for the Casa Node - Feb 1, 2019 - Casa Browser Extension released - v0.5.2-beta-rc6 of lnd, full release getting very close now - Feb 1, 2019 - Tallycoin adds subscriptions and paywall features in bid to rival Patreon - Jan 31, 2019 - Static channel backup PR merged into LN - Jan 31, 2019 - The NYDFS grants another Bitlicense to ATM operator - Jan 31, 2019 - @pwuille currently proposing the “MiniScript” language to describe BTC output locking conditions for practical composition - Jan 31, 2019 - Fidelity is in the “final testing” phase for its new digital asset business - Jan 31, 2019 - Hardware wallet PR #109 just got merged so that @Trezor no longer requires user interaction for PIN - Jan 31, 2019 - CBOE, VanEck & SolidX filed a new & improved bitcoin ETF proposal. - Jan 31, 2019 - Casa Node code is now open sourced - Jan 31, 2019 - Next Bitoin halving in roughly 497 days - Jan 31, 2019 - BTCPay released 1.0.3.53 - Jan 31, 2019 - @binance now lets users purchase cryptos using Visa and Mastercard credit. - Jan 31, 2019 - Bitfury to Launch Bitcoin Operations in Paraguay - Jan 31, 2019 - Coinbase introduces very generous affiliate program - Jan 30, 2019 - DOJO Trusted Node bitcoin full node. Coming Early 2019 - Jan 30, 2019 - FastBitcoins.com Enables Cash-for-Bitcoin Exchange Via the Lightning Network - Jan 30, 2019 - TD Ameritrade says clients want cryptocurrency investment options - company plans major announcement in 'first half of 2019' - Jan 30, 2019 - Storage component of Fidelity's @DigitalAssets live, with some assets under management, @nikhileshde - Jan 29, 2019 - lightning mainnet has reached 600 BTC capacity - Jan 29, 2019 - Drivechain shows picture of Grin side chain and suggests might be ready in 2 month - Jan 29, 2019 - Lightning labs iOS neutrino wallet in testing stage now - Jan 29, 2019 - Aliant offering cryptocurrency processing free-of-charge - Jan 29, 2019 - Chainstone’s Regulator product to manage assets on the way - Jan 29, 2019 - Fidelity Investments’ new crypto custody service may officially launch in March. - Jan 29, 2019 - Gemini's becomes FIRST crypto EXCHANGE and CUSTODIAN to complete a SOC 2 Review by Deloitte - Jan 29, 2019 - Iran has lifted the ban on Bitcoin and cryptocurrency - Jan 29, 2019 - Confidential Transactions being added into Litecoin announcement - Jan 28, 2019 - http://FastBitcoins.com Enables Cash-for-Bitcoin Exchange Via the Lightning Network - Jan 28, 2019 - Germany’s largest online food delivery platform now accepts btc - Jan 27, 2019 - Launching a Bitcoin Developers School in Switzerland - Jan 27, 2019 - RTL release v0.1.13-alpha Lightning Build repository released - Jan 27, 2019 - The first pay-per-page fantasy novel available to Lightning Network. - Jan 27, 2019 - Numerous tools become available to write messages transmitted with Blockstream Satellite - Jan 26, 2019; - BTCPay 1.0.3.47 released - Jan 26,2019 - WordPress + WooCommerce + BTCPay Plugin is now live - Jan 25, 2019 - Juan Guaido has been promoting #Bitcoin since 2014 is new interim president of Venezuela - Jan 25, 2019 - Morgan Creek funds @RealBlocks - Jan 25, 2019 - Coinbase integrates TurboTax - Jan 25, 2019 - Robinhood received Bitlicense - Jan 25, 2019 - Anchor Labs launches custody - Jan 25, 2019 - NYSE Arca files w/ @BitwiseInvest for BTC ETF approval - Jan 25, 2019 - South Korea, Seoul, Busan & Jeju Island currently working to create pro crypto economic zones. - Jan 25, 2019 - valerio-vaccaro/Liquid-dashboard - Jan 25, 2019 - Bermuda to launch crypto friendly bank - Jan 25, 2019 - Mobile Bitcoin Wallet BRD Raises $15 Million, Plans for Expansion in Asia - Jan 25, 2019 - BullBitcoin rolling out alpha access of platform - Jan 25, 2019 - Electrum Wallet Release 3.3.3 - Jan 25, 2019 - Bitrefill, purchase Bitcoin and have it delivered directly over LN - Jan 25, 2019 - South Korean crypto exchange Bithumb looking to go public in USA - Jan 24, 2019 - Bitcoin Exchanges Don’t Need Money Transmitter Licenses in Pennsylvania - Jan 24, 2019 - US; New Hampshire Bill Aims to Legalize Bitcoin for State Payments in 2020 - Jan 24, 2019 - Robinhood, LibertyX Receive Licenses from New York Regulators - Jan 24, 2019 - Bakkt Bitcoin futures contract details released - Jan 24, 2019 - Blockstream CryptoFeed V3 now includes 30+ venues and 200M+ updates per day - Jan 24, 2019 - Binance Jersey – The Latest Binance European Exchange - Jan 2019
Commit Activity
Nodes and Market Dominance
Bitcoin
Financial
Lightning:
ASIC Miners:
Will update this section when I hear new developments
Wallets:
Hardware wallets:
LN
LN Apps:
LN Extensions / Launchers
LN Desktop wallets:
LN Mobile wallets:
LN Network:
LN Nodes:
LN Plugins:
LN Services:
Liquid Network
Rgulatory:
Exchanges:
Payments:
Please comment if you have any ideas on dates. Many of these dates are placeholders waiting for me to update. If you comment then I will update the post.
submitted by kolinHall to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

#Binance Futures - Trade Bitcoin, altcoins and more with up to 125x leverage Staking Binance! Como Hacer Staking? Paso a Paso 2020 How to Deposit Bitcoin To Binance Sinhala Binance para iniciantes / Saques e Depósitos (Bitcoin ... Bitcoin Halving Bull Run? Binance Launches Bitcoin Mining Pool - BitPay BUSD - Kim Jong Un BTC Stash BITCOIN MOVE INCOMING?!  Binance 20x Margin Vs. BitMEX & Bybit TRANSFERINDO BITCOIN PARA A BINANCE  EXPERT BITCOIN Bitcoin Kurs - Was ist mit Bakkt?  Binance vor Einbruch?  Libra Game Over?  GRAM Kaufen How to Transfer Bitcoin From Binance to Coinbase - YouTube BITCOIN BREAKOUT TODAY!!!  Binance Leverage Trading, Will Compete With Bybit & BitMEX

Binance users can now buy Bitcoin with practically all of the fiat currencies in existence; Binance, which is one of the leading cryptocurrency exchanges in the world, has partnered with the peer-to-peer crypto exchange Paxful. Via this partnership, Binance users can now use 167 different fiat currencies to buy Bitcoin. Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao has apologized for causing concern among the crypto community when he openly spoke about the possibility of a rollback for the Bitcoin blockchain following confirmation of a hack leading to the theft of USD 40 million worth of bitcoins on its platform.. The rollback had caused a sharp backlash, particularly among Bitcoin-only communities, aghast at the very concept ... You will be surprised how many people genuinely support us because of the philosophy behind crypto, which is centered around freedom and liberty. The startup, with backing from Binance, is now talking to airline lounges and airports, as well as retailers, across the globe in an endeavor to roll out its blockchain payment system. According to the Co-founder and CEO of LibertyX, Chris Yim, the aim of the Bitcoin exchange is to allow anyone to “buy bitcoin at familiar locations they drive or walk by daily.” So far, the company operates over 25,000 retail Bitcoin purchasing points – 20,000 cash accepting retail locations and 5,000 debit-accepting ATMs spread across the U.S. Jaxx Liberty is a powerful online wallet that supports bitcoin and many other altcoins. Jaxx, which originated in 2014, recently updated its wallet to Jaxx Liberty, which was released in 2018. This online wallet is available for both Android and iOS, or you can download it to your desktop. Jaxx now includes a portfolio, a unified dashboard, and Shapeshift integration so you can easily exchange ... LibertyX, one of the crypto industry’s top retailers of Bitcoin Automated Teller Machines (ATMs,) is looking to ride off Bitcoin’s recent rally to improve accessibility to customers. To that ... Cryptocurrency supporters all around the world are celebrating the fact that today is the 12th anniversary of the Bitcoin white paper. It now appears there is actually a Bitcoin ATM at the Tesla Gigafactory based in Nevada; this is despite Tesla founder Elon Musk downplaying the existence of one, following a tweet by Fold CEO Will Reeves, who claimed to have sighted the ATM over the weekend. The tweet also featured google map images, which reveal that the ATM sits close to the mega facility's North-East section.

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#Binance Futures - Trade Bitcoin, altcoins and more with up to 125x leverage

Binance Pool’s first product offering will be Bitcoin mining, using a FPPS payment method. - BitPay Partners With Binance to Support BUSD Payments Around the World Sign up here for a free account and 10% discount for the first 30 days: bit.ly/FuturesYouTube #Binance Futures - Trade Bitcoin, altcoins and more with up to 125x ... Veja como é fácil transferir bitcoins da sua carteira para a Binance. Saiba como pessoas comuns estão lucrando com BITCOIN. Sinta-se à vontade para entrar em contato. WHATSAPP: (22) 99962-5844 ... Registrate en Binance: https://bit.ly/2UyOAH8 Os traigo un nuevo video en el que os explico como hacer staking en binance, y como conseguir criptomonedas gratis con el staking. Bitcoin Kurs - Was ist mit Bakkt? BNB Coin vor Einbruch? Libra Game Over? GRAM Kaufen 0:48 - Kurs & Markt Update 2:55 - Bitcoin Kurs - Wo geht die Reise hin? 7:26 - Binance Coin BNB vor ... Bitcoin Technical Analysis & Bitcoin News Today: Binance will launch Bitcoin leverage trading. This mean that Binance will compete with BitMEX and Bybit. Also, I'll use technical analysis on the ... Bitcoin Sinhala Tutorials: https://bitcoinsinhala.com අද video එකෙන් කතා කරන්නෙ binance exchange එකට කොහොමද bitcoin deposit කරන්නෙ ... Nesse vídeo você aprenderá a realizar depósitos e saques na binance , acho que era isso , pronto falei . https://www.binance.com/?ref=10273283 Know how to transfer from Binance to Coinbase. This video will help you move your coins from Binance to hardware wallet or other exchange. In this video, I s... Bitcoin Technical Analysis & Bitcoin News Today: Is Binance margin trading the new thing? On Binance you can now trade with up to 20x leverage on many cryptocurrencies. People are leaving BitMEX ...

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